Defence Newsletter
Vol. 17, No. 7

July 1998
Table of Contents

            Defence Newsletter        Page 1



Central African Republic

U.N. peacekeepers will stay a little longer in the Central African Republic. The Security Council has decided to extend the mandate of the 1400-member mission to October 25 in order to allow the U.N. and other international organizations to help out in the September 30 elections. (JDW: July 22/98, p. 17)


At the end of June, a U.S. fighter aircraft fired on an Iraqi missile site that had threatened British warplanes. U.S. Defense Secretary William Cohen said he hoped the incident was an isolated one and did not presage a renewal of tensions. But he warned, “If our aircraft, or those of our allies are threatened, it will be met with a very vigorous response.” It was the first time U.S. jets have fired on an Iraqi radar since November 1996. (OC: July 1/98, p. B1)


At the end of July, Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic told European Union envoys that a fierce offensive that took back much of Kosovo from ethnic Albanian guerrillas was over. But Albanian sources said that Serbian forces were still shelling villages in rebel territory near the western border with Albania. (OC: July 31/98, p. A7)


The U.N. Security Council has voted to increase the 702-strong peacekeeping force in Macedonia to 1,050 personnel. As well, the mandate of the U.N. Preventative Deployment Force is being extended until February 28, 1999. About 230 of the new troops will be deployed at observation posts along the borders with Kosovo and Albania. (JDW: July 29/98, p. 7)


A CBC TV report says that in May 1994, MGen Romeo Dallaire drafted a plan that called for a quick airlift of 1,800 U.N. troops to the Rwandan capital of Kigali, followed by a deployment of 3,200 more soldiers to northern Rwanda to protect civilians. At the time he wrote the plan, about 200,000 people had already been massacred. But the general’s plan was never presented to the U.N. Security Council by the organization’s secretariat because the U.S. government vetoed it. (OC: July 3/98, p. A2)

World Court

On July 17, delegates from 120 countries approved the creation of an International Criminal Court. The court will try cases of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and crimes of aggression. Only seven countries voted against the court – the U.S., China, India, Iraq, Israel, Libya and Russia. Twenty-one countries abstained. The treaty establishing the court enters into force once 60 countries have ratified it. The court will be based in The Hague and will have 18 judges. (G&M: July 18/98, p. A1; OC: July 18/98, p. A7)

Further References

“U.S. not swayed by new world court deal”, in G&M: July 17/98, p. A8.

“U.S. qualms over world court called groundless” by Paul Koring, in G&M: July 24/98, p. A8.

            Page 2        Vol. 17, No. 7 (July 1998)


Pakistan – Reference

“Pakistani defector implicates China” by Paul Beaver, in JDW: July 8/98, p. 3.

India – References

“India, USA hold secret CTBT talks” by Rahul Bedi, in JDW: July 15/98, p. 5.

“Indian-US arms control talks: a long way to go” by Rahul Bedi, in JDW: July 29/98, p. 7.


Arms Sales – Reference

“Arms dealers tell NATO newcomers: Come on down!” by Adam LeBor, in G&M: July 21/98, p. A10.

Small Arms

Representatives from 21 governments met in Oslo, in mid-July, to discuss curbing the proliferation of rifles, sub-machine guns and other light weapons such as hand grenades and small mortars. Canada, Norway and Belgium are seen as the lead nations in the drive to control small arms. The U.S. sent representatives to the Oslo conference but their priority – shared by the French who also attended, and the Chinese and Russians who did not – is to keep the focus of any new international agreement on illicit trade rather than curbing the lucrative and legal international arms trade. The Oslo conference is to be followed by other sessions leading up to a global small arms conference in Switzerland in 2000 or 2001. (G&M: July 14/98, p. A9; OC: July 14/98, p. A10; G&M: July 15/98, p. A11)

Further References

“Legal loopholes make arms shipments easy” by Raymond Bonner, in G&M: July 15/98, p. A11.

“Farewell to small arms?” [editorial], in OC: July 18/98, p. B5.


Canada as a Global Dilettante

Canada’s global reputation is apparently changing. Analysts at home and abroad are commenting on Canada’s declining military capability and global influence as it talks about “constructive engagement”, peace building and human security. Nobel Peace Prize winner Jose Ramos Horta has dismissed Canada’s foreign policy as “wishy-washy”, saying buzzwords such as “soft power” do little more than provide a smokescreen for justifying trade with some of the world’s more repressive regimes. Professor John Carson, of the University of Toronto, says Canada is pursuing an “ad hoc” foreign policy that concentrates on issues that look good but do little to further the cause of global peace and security. He says,

Although there’s nothing dilettantish about getting rid of land-mines and setting up a permanent militarized unit for the United Nations and other things that our foreign minister backs occasionally, these are the kind of things which are described as dilettantish because they tend to be issues that look a lot better than the weight of their substance.

When it comes to international peace and security, Canada and its gutted military are regarded as being close to irrelevant. In February, Canada sent only one warship to the Persian Gulf (see Vol. 17, No. 2, p. 7), and in June, the government was either unable or unwilling to send CF-18s to participate in the NATO exercises serving as a warning to Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic (see Vol. 17, No. 6, p. 5). (OC: July 8/98, p. A4)


“Canada wooing UN for hot seat”, in G&M: July 24/98, p. A7.

            Defence Newsletter        Page 3



During a visit to Macedonia, NATO Secretary General Javier Solana said that “NATO will not use Macedonian territory for possible actions in Kosovo but will guarantee Macedonia’s security.” (JDW: July 29/98, p. 7)

Eastern Expansion – Reference

“Pressing agenda” by Marc Rogers, in JDW: July 29/98, p. 23.



Missile Tests

HMCS REGINA fired two vertically launched Sea Sparrow missiles on July 22, about 20 nautical miles northwest of Kauai. The missile firing was the culmination of a comprehensive program of training and technical preparation that began in February. A missile shoot by HMCS HURON, scheduled to occur at the same time and against the same target, was called off when a problem developed with the system used to transmit flight data and information about the missile’s performance. (Maritime Forces Pacific, News Release: July 24/98)


CSIS Studies

The Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) is taking a broader look at threats to Canadian security. Beyond the usual concern of espionage and terrorists, the CSIS is planning almost two dozen research studies which range from the mass migration of refugees to the collapse of ecosystems. (OC: July 14/98, p. A3)

Cyber Defences

The U.S. and Canada intend to establish a working group whose aim is to reach an agreement for defending information and computer systems used by the two armed forces. Defence Minister Arthur Eggleton says the co-operation between the two militaries could develop into an agreement for the defence of North American cyberspace in the same way as the NORAD treaty covers the protection of the continent’s airspace. In the meantime, the Canadian military has created several teams to deal with potential cyber attacks on its systems and to make sure its computer networks are secure. Over the next several weeks, American, British, Canadian and Australian teams in England will probe defence computer networks looking for vulnerabilities. Canadian military computers have few links to the outside, reducing the opportunities to penetrate the system. But the U.S. military uses the Internet more, giving hackers more opportunity to gain access to the computer system. (OC: July 13/98, p. A6)

CFS Alert

CFS Alert is a signals intelligence collection facility in the Arctic. Communications technicians monitor the intercept equipment that gathers telephone calls, data transmissions, radio chatter, etc. They perform a preliminary analysis but most of the code breaking, translations and detailed analytical work on the signal intercepts is performed at CFB Leitrim, near Ottawa. The data is transmitted from Alert to Ottawa via the High Arctic Data Communications System, a microwave link to Eureka on the west coast of Ellesmere Island, and then by satellite. The outpost, run by 79 military personnel, costs between $12- and $15-million a year to keep open, and there is talk that it may be shut down. Almost 80 per cent of the signals currently collected at Alert can be gathered at Eureka, where costs are substantially lower. There is concern, however, about whether the 20 per cent of signals lost will contain important information. (OC: July 11/98, p. B3)

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Further References

“Operation Hurricane: mission maintenance” by Bramwell Ryan, in OC: July 11/98, p. B3.

“Friendships brighten darkest of jobs” by Bramwell Ryan, in OC: July 12/98, p. A6.


Central African Republic

Canada has extended its commitment to the U.N. peacekeeping force in the Central African Republic by three months (see this Newsletter, p. 1). Canada contributes 45 personnel to the multinational force (see Vol. 17, No. 4-5, pp. 13-14). (DND, News Release: July 3/98, NR-98.053; G&M: July 4/98, p. A4)



CFB Rockliffe

DND and the Treasury Board are discussing the future of the 341-acre base, CFB Rockliffe, with the Canada Lands Co., whose mandate is to sell large pieces of federal land. DND will have moved all of its personnel off the base by late 1999. If sold, the land could bring as much as $1.3-billion. (OC: July 21/98, p. A1)

Northern Clean-Up

The federal government has reached a deal with the Inuit of the eastern Arctic on cleaning up 15 military sites contaminated with various pollutants, ranging from PCBs to heavy metals. The $230-million deal was concluded after four years of talks. It outlines how 15 Distant Early Warning Line radar sites will be decommissioned and cleaned up. The process will be monitored by a four-member panel of Inuit and government officials, and will take 15 years. (CH: July 20/98)

Another six DEW Line sites in the western Arctic are covered by a separate $70-million agreement with the Inuvialuit (see Vol. 15, No. 2, p. 7). (CH: July 20/98)

Meanwhile, a $100-million deal with the U.S. government covering the cleanup of abandoned American military sites, has been delayed in the U.S. Senate (see Vol. 16, No. 11-12, p. 12). The Senate wants guarantees that the deal will not become a precedent for other countries and that Canada will spend the money on the cleanup and will follow through on promises to spend an equivalent amount on U.S. military supplies. (CH: July 20/98)

            Defence Newsletter        Page 5

Dockside Monitoring System

In June, the Navy accepted a new Dockside Monitoring System used to monitor radiation from nuclear powered ships and submarines that visit Shearwater jetty. The Navy has purchased three of the systems – one each for Esquimalt, Nanoose, and Halifax – for a total cost of $594,250 (see Vol. 15, No. 8, pp. 6-7). (Maritime Forces Atlantic, Backgrounder: July 7/98)



The office of the first military ombudsman has been deluged with inquiries. Mr. Andre Marin says, “We have mountains of correspondence, requests for assistance or representation, complaints and investigation requests. The office is swamped.” Marin hasn’t hired a receptionist yet and is still looking for a permanent office. He expects to make some key appointments over the next several weeks and then he will work with his new staff to draft a mandate proposal for the Defence Minister’s approval. (OC: July 10/98, p. A6)

Rank has its Privileges

Charges have been filed against a male reservist, Capt Drummond Fraser, for engaging in intimate acts with a female British officer, contrary to regulations while serving in Bosnia. Charges have also been laid against a senior ranking Ottawa officer for consuming small amounts of crack cocaine. His identity is being withheld by the military, in a move, which some observers are calling a double standard. (OC: July 28/98, p. A3)

Former Chief Warrant Officer Everett Boyle told Maclean’s magazine that during his time in the armed forces, “In every case where an officer was in trouble, the military’s first instinct was to cover it up.” He said he meted out harsh justice when one of the enlisted personnel he was in charge of erred, but four times during his 37-year career he saw officers cover up incidents where other brass were involved, or fix outcomes of investigations to save careers and avoid embarrassment. (OC: July 6/98, p. A3)

Soldier Arrested

A former Airborne soldier and current serving member of 3RCR, Sgt Darnell Bass, has been arrested at CFB Petawawa, and charged with attempted murder and armed robbery for the commando-style raid on a Calgary bank and Brinks’s armoured car last March. (OC: July 17/98, p. A1)

Further Reference

“Heist suspect stockpiled weapons” by David Pugliese, in OC: July 18/98, p. A1.

Sexual Harassment

In an open letter to the military, Gen Maurice Baril, Chief of the Defence Staff, said,

The sexual harassment and assault of men and women is not tolerated anywhere in Canadian society, and I find this particularly heinous when this happens in our military system, where chivalry, honour, protection of the weakest and respect for all should be guiding principles.

He said “I will not allow the Canadian Forces to become a refuge or a training ground for thugs and brutes.” He dismissed arguments that the sexual conduct of soldiers is no better or worse than that of civilians: “Canadians demand a higher standard of behaviour from members in uniform, and so do I.” (G&M: July 15/98, p. A1; OC: July 15/98, p. A3)

Gen Baril is himself being investigated over claims that he was told about the sexual harassment of a female employee at CFB Kingston in 1996, but that he did nothing about it. Baril’s speech writer at the time, Capt Bruce Poulin, apparently told Baril, then commander of the Land Forces, about a possible harassment by Col Serge Labbe (see Vol. 17, No. 6, p. 10). (OC: July 1/98, p. A2)

            Page 6        Vol. 17, No. 7 (July 1998)

Defence Minister Arthur Eggleton is asking the public to give the military time to make changes. He said, “I ask the people of Canada to give us a chance to show that in fact we can bring about these changes and make the military quite in line with the values that exist in our country today.” He said, “I will not tolerate abuse, or abuse of authority or sexual misconduct at any level [of] the Canadian Forces.” (OC: July 7/98, p. A3; G&M: July 7/98, p. A6)

Women in Combat

Defence Minister Arthur Eggleton says Canada will succeed in putting women in front-line combat jobs, even though other countries have failed. “Not because Canadians are so much better than they are, but I think because the times have changed,” he told the Ottawa Citizen’s editorial board. He says he does not have any moral qualms about sending women into combat to die for Canada if necessary, but “I hope to hell it never happens. I hope it never happens for men or women.” (OC: July 23/98, p. A4)


Defence Minister Arthur Eggleton says the military will begin a campaign to recruit more visible minorities and aboriginals in the Canadian Forces. Up to 25 per cent of new recruits would be visible minorities under the new plan. There are currently 1,100 visible minority members of the armed forces – 1.8 per cent of the total CF. (OC: July 23/98, p. A4)


“Man seeks military compensation for severe beating” by Cautou Mackinnon, in OC: July 18/98, p. A3.


Pilot Training – Reference

“Flying first class” by Allan Thompson, in Toronto Star: July 16/98 [feature article on the NATO Flying Training in Canada project].



An internal DND audit has revealed that hidden subsidies to military canteens, messes and recreational clubs could have cost as much as $76-million in the 1993-94 fiscal year. Defence officials say the audit of four bases – Halifax, Shearwater, Petawawa, and Cold Lake – prompted a forces-wide re-examination of the subsidy issue. A new policy may be announced by the end of this year. (G&M: July 25/98, p. A3)




Lockheed Martin Canada is moving its headquarters to Kanata, Ontario from Montreal, and closing its Winnipeg plant. The move is part of a corporate reorganization that will result in the lay-offs of 230 from Winnipeg, and the hiring of about 50 new personnel in the Ottawa area. (OC: July 4/98, p. D3)

            Defence Newsletter        Page 7

ATS Closed

ATS Aerospace Inc. of Quebec is shutting down operations after its cash reserves were drained by the delay of a major contract with a European air traffic agency, and last winter’s ice storm. Executive Vice-President Amy Friend said the goal is now to find a partner to take over ATS’s assets so that the technology and staff can survive. The company makes and maintains hundreds of the world’s most sophisticated air traffic control training systems. (G&M: July 10/98, p. B3)


“Double duty technology helps aerospace and defence thrive” by Tamara Shephard in Silicon Valley North: July 1998, p. 1.

“Radarsat II serves the bottom line” by Jeff Leiper, in Silicon Valley North: July 1998, p. 15.



“Marines whip managers [at Computing Devices Co.] into shape” by Donna Korchinski, in G&M: July 17/98, p. B21.

“High-tech camera firm [Westcam Inc.] getting back in spotlight” by Mark MacKinnon, in G&M: July 27/98, p. B1.

“Comlinks of light in space” by Mark Hill, in Silicon Valley North: July 1998, p. 16.

“Providing support for simulated war games” by Mark Hill, in Silicon Valley North: July 1998, p. 16.


Electronic Warfare

The navy’s plan to upgrade its SLQ-501 Canadian Electronic Warfare System (CANEWS), has stalled due to lack of money. Phase IB of the project was completed last November, with the production of an Interim Advanced Development Model. Phase II, which is expected to take four or five years, is supposed to produce an ADM followed by extensive ship trials. However, Mr. Bob Spittall, Director of Maritime Ship Support, says “it’s locked up in the resource battle for funding.” He said, “CANEWS 2 offers us probably the lowest cost solution to a major EW problem that we have.... And we will get it funded. But we will not get it funded in the short term, i.e., in the next year.” CANEWS 2 will provide a modular upgrade to CANEWS 1. It provides the electronic support measures system with a new processor, software and new display. (Jane’s Navy International: July/August 1998, p. 6)



“Experts question Candu deal with Turkey” by Charles Enman, in OC: July 8/98, p. A3.



Kelowna Flightcraft of B.C. is in discussions with Embraer for the cockpit upgrade of the Brazilian manufacturer’s Tucano turboprop trainer. Kelowna believes the Brazilian interest has been prompted by the Canadian company’s cockpit upgrade of Bolivia’s T-33. (Flight International: July 1-7/98, p. 22)

            Page 8        Vol. 17, No. 7 (July 1998)


The first Bolivian T-33 is scheduled to arrive at Kelowna in November, and the company will undertake work on two prototypes. After delays caused by financing, Bolivia wants to accelerate the US$16-million upgrade with all 18 aircraft to be redelivered by December 1999. (Flight International: July 1-7/98, p. 22)


Oerlikon Aerospace’s proposal to sell 36 ADATS (air defence anti-tank systems) to Greece includes 24 new-build Mk 2 systems and 12 slightly used Canadian army ADATS Mk 1s. Oerlikon, which at times has seemed tantalizing close to winning the US$500-600 million contract, is now keeping a low profile, as the competition, which has been underway for over two years, continues to drag on. What makes the prospect of a Greek deal especially attractive to Canada, is that it helps alleviate some of the army’s budget problems. Mr. Rick Adams of the Directorate of International and Industry Programs at DND, says the army’s equipment review study, completed last November, determined that up to 12 ADATS, plus spare parts and test equipment, might be available for sale. Oerlikon, which saw an opportunity to lower the price of the package it was offering to Greece by including the surplus ADATS with the new-builds in its proposal, approached DND with a suggestion that it buy back the systems. Along with the 12 ADATS, the Canadian army is prepared to sell up to 200 missiles from its inventory (two loads per unit plus test missiles). These, along with the ADATS, would be handed over to the Crown Assets Disposal Agency for sale to Oerlikon. Oerlikon’s sale to Greece would then be handled through the Canadian Commercial Corporation, allowing DND to maintain an arm’s length distance from sales to a politically sensitive area of the world. The sale would require an end-user certificate which will state that the systems will not be deployed to Cyprus. (JDW: July 8/98, p. 11)

United States

The U.S. Navy has awarded a contract to Bombardier Services for the further evaluation of the CL-327 Guardian unmanned air vehicle (see Vol. 17, No. 6, p. 16). Bombardier will now integrate the Sierra Nevada UCARS automatic landing system with the CL-327 and demonstrate the UAV aboard a U.S. Navy ship. (Bombardier Services, Press Release: July 9/98)




Spar Aviation Services in Edmonton (formerly CAE Aviation), has begun delivery of the upgraded C-130 Hercules transport aircraft to the air force. The company is under contract to upgrade the avionics in 30 C-130s, and has submitted a proposal to upgrade the final two aircraft – civil L-100s converted to military configuration by CAE. Spar is also responsible for depot level maintenance of the Hercules fleet, and is collecting structural data to determine whether or not their service lives can be extended to as much as 65,000 hours. (Flight International: July 15-21/98, p. 18)


Steam Driven Destroyers

HMCS NIPIGON, the last of the navy’s operational steam-driven destroyers, sailed into retirement on July 3. For the last eight years, NIPIGON has been used as the navy’s test ship for towed array sonar systems – CANTASS and ETASS. (Maritime Forces Atlantic, News Release: July 1/98, NPAO: 40.98)

            Defence Newsletter        Page 9

Although they did not conduct decommissioning sailpasts like NIPIGON, because they are no longer actively crewed, HMCS GATINEAU, TERRA NOVA and ANNAPOLIS, were officially decommissioned at the same time. (Maritime Forces Atlantic, News Release: July 1/98, NPAO: 40.98)

MCDV – Reference

“Shipbuilding & Defence” by Sharon Hobson, in Canadian Sailings: July 13/98, p. 47 [a look what the Auditor General says about the MCDV project].


Upholder Class

Canada has signed contracts with the British government, GEC Marine and Vickers Shipbuilding, covering the lease and support of the four Upholder submarines being acquired from the Royal Navy (see Vol. 17, No. 4-5, p. 27). The contract with VSEL is for the provision of initial equipment spares and the training of Canadian crews. VSEL will provide about $150-million in direct and indirect industrial benefits in Canada. A further $100-million of benefits will be in the form of waivers to provide industrial offsets in the U.K. for Canadian companies bidding on defence contracts there. (DND, News Release: July 2/98, NR-98.052)

Further Reference

“Submarine purchase another example of Ottawa’s overspending” by Diane Francis, in Financial Post: July 11/98.


EW Training System

DND has awarded Sierra Technologies Inc. of Buffalo, New York, a US$14-million contract for the development and range integration of a Surface Threat Electronic Warfare (STEW) Training System. Five threat transmitters – three fixed and two mobile – will be delivered over the next 24 months. They will simulate a range of threats from surface-to-air missiles and anti-aircraft artillery. The STEW system can respond to jamming and evasive manoeuvres, and it automatically records the engagement for later playback and debriefing. The system will allow the air force to conduct year-round electronic warfare training at the Cold Lake Air Weapons Range in northeastern Alberta. Previously, the Canadians conducted limited training by borrowing American threat simulators or using foreign EW training ranges. The Sierra Research Division will manage the STEW contract. Canadian subcontractors on the project include Spar Aerospace in Toronto, Trylon TSF Telecommunications in Montreal, Prior Data Sciences of Kanata, and Tactical Technologies Inc. of Ottawa. (JDW: July 29/98, p. 9)


ALEP Aurora Life Extension Program
ASW Anti-Submarine Warfare
AWACS Airborne Warning and Control System
CFE Conventional Armed Forces in Europe
CPF Canadian Patrol Frigate
CSH Canadian Search and Rescue Helicopter
DND Department of National Defence
DPSA Defence Production Sharing Arrangement
MARCOM Maritime Command
MCDV/MCM Vessels Maritime Coastal Defence/Mine Countermeasures Vessels
MHP Maritime Helicopter Program
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NORAD North American Aerospace Defence Command
NWS North Warning System
SALT/START Strategic Arms Limitation Talks/Strategic Arms Reduction Talks
SCNDVA Standing Committee on National Defence and Veterans Affairs
SSN Submarine, Nuclear-Powered

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